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2381
Transport Layer
Transport Layer

Residing between the application and network layers, the transport layer is the most important part of the layered network architecture. It has the critical role of providing communication services directly to the application processes running on different hosts. The pedagogic

Tags network layer, transport layer, internet protocol, end system, transmission rate, logical communication, segments
1210
Overview of the Transport Layer in the Internet
Overview of the Transport Layer in the Internet

Recollect that the internet, and more commonly a TCP/IP network, makes available two distinct transport-layer protocols to the application layer. One of these protocols is UDP (User Datagram Protocol), which provides an unreliable, connectionless service to the invoking

Tags application layer, udp, tcp, network application, sockets, datagram, packets, segments
5874
Connection-Oriented Multiplexing and Demultiplexing
Connection-Oriented Multiplexing and Demultiplexing

To understand TCP demultiplexing, we have to study TCP sockets and TCP connection establishment. One slight difference between a TCP socket and a UDP socket is that a TCP socket is identified by a four-tuple: (source IP address, source port number, destination IP address,

Tags tcp sockets, udp socket, host, segments
4719
Round-Trip Time Estimation and Timeout
Round-Trip Time Estimation and Timeout

TCP, like our rdt protocol in Principles of Reliable Data Transfer, uses a timeout/retransmit mechanism to recover from lost segments. Though this is conceptually simple, many subtle issues arise when we implement a timeout/retransmit mechanism in an actual protocol such

Tags segments, routers, ewma, end systems, rdt protocol
1652
Principles of Congestion Control
Principles of Congestion Control

In the previous sections, we considered both the general principles and specific TCP mechanisms used to provide for a reliable data transfer service in the face of packet loss. We mentioned earlier that, in practice, such loss usually results from the overflowing of router buffers as

Tags network congestion, tcp mechanism, per-connection throughput, router, segments
1709
The Network Layer
The Network Layer

We know that the transport layer provides many forms of process-to-process communication by relying on the network layers host-to-host communication service. We also know that the transport layer does so without any knowledge about how the network layer in fact implements

Tags network layer, router, transport layer, segments, datagram, routing algorithms, forwarding table, packet switch
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