Router

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Ethernet
Ethernet

On corporate and university campuses, a local area network (LAN) is typically used to connect an end system to the edge router. Though, there are many types of LAN technologies, Ethernet is by far the most widespread access technology in corporate and university networks.

Tags lan, end system, router
1256
Physical Media
Physical Media

In the earlier subsection, we gave general idea of some of the most important network access technologies in the Internet. As we explained these technologies, we also indicated the physical media used. For instance, we said that HFC uses a combination of fiber cable and coaxial

Tags end system, router, lan
1606
Web Caching
Web Caching

A Web cache - also called a proxy server - is a network entity that satisfies HTTP requests on the behalf of an origin Web server. The Web cache has its own disk storage and keeps copies of recently requested objects in this storage. As shown in Figure 1, a user's browser can be

Tags web cache, proxy server, network entity, router, internet delay
1436
Case Study: P2P Internet Telephony with Skype
Case Study: P2P Internet Telephony with Skype

Skype is an immensely popular P2P application, often with seven or eight million users connected to it at any one time. Besides providing PC-to-PC Internet telephony service, Skype offers PC-to-phone telephony service, phone-to-PC telephony service, and PC-to-PC video

Tags nodes, relays, router, peers, packets, p2p application, protocol
3057
Reliable Data Transfer
Reliable Data Transfer

Remember that the Internet's network-layer service (IP service) is untrustworthy. IP does not guarantee datagram delivery, does not guarantee in-order delivery of datagrams, and does not guarantee the integrity of the data in the datagrams. With IP service, datagrams can

Tags datagram, router, end system, selective acknowledgment, tcp receiver
2169
TCP Connection Management
TCP Connection Management

In this section well examine how a TCP connection is established and torn down. Though this topic may not seem particularly exciting, it is important because TCP connection establishment can considerably add to perceived delays (for instance, when surfing the Web). Moreover,

Tags tcp connection, tcp segment, ip datagram, payload, router, synack segment
1360
Principles of Congestion Control
Principles of Congestion Control

In the previous sections, we considered both the general principles and specific TCP mechanisms used to provide for a reliable data transfer service in the face of packet loss. We mentioned earlier that, in practice, such loss usually results from the overflowing of router buffers as

Tags network congestion, tcp mechanism, per-connection throughput, router, segments
1384
The Network Layer
The Network Layer

We know that the transport layer provides many forms of process-to-process communication by relying on the network layers host-to-host communication service. We also know that the transport layer does so without any knowledge about how the network layer in fact implements

Tags network layer, router, transport layer, segments, datagram, routing algorithms, forwarding table, packet switch
2774
What's Inside a Router
What's Inside a Router

Now that we've seen an overview of the functions and services of the network layer, let's turn our attention to the network layer's forwarding function - the actual transfer of packets from a router's incoming links to the appropriate outgoing links. We already took a brief look at a few

Tags network layer, line card, router, switching fabric, forwarding table, line speed
1441
Switching Fabric
Switching Fabric

The switching fabric is at the very heart of a router. It is through the switching fabric that the packets are in fact switched (that is, forwarded) from an input port to an output port. Switching can be completed in a number of ways, as shown in Figure 1:

Tags switching fabric, router, interconnection network, switch architecture
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