Routers

3503
Round-Trip Time Estimation and Timeout
Round-Trip Time Estimation and Timeout

TCP, like our rdt protocol in Principles of Reliable Data Transfer, uses a timeout/retransmit mechanism to recover from lost segments. Though this is conceptually simple, many subtle issues arise when we implement a timeout/retransmit mechanism in an actual protocol such

Tags segments, routers, ewma, end systems, rdt protocol
1690
Datagram Networks
Datagram Networks

In a datagram network, each time an end system wants to send a packet, it stamps the packet with the address of the destination end system and then pops the packet into the network. As shown in Figure 1, this is done without any VC setup. Routers in a datagram network

Tags datagram network, end system, routers, forwarding table
764
A Brief Foray into IP Security
A Brief Foray into IP Security

"Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)" covered IPv4 in some detail, containing the services it provides and how those services are implemented. While reading through that section, you may have noticed that there was no mention of any security services. In fact, IPv4 was

Tags computer network, virtual private networks, routers, hosts, cryptographic algorithms
1557
The Link-State (LS) Routing Algorithms
The Link-State (LS) Routing Algorithms

Remember that in a link-state algorithm, the network topology and all link costs are known, that is, available as input to the LS algorithm. In fact this is accomplished by having each node broadcast link-state packets to all other nodes in the network, with each link-state packet

Tags nodes, broadcast algorithms, loop, ls algorithm, routers
1638
Inter-AS Routing: BGP
Inter-AS Routing: BGP

We just studied how ISPs use RIP and OSPF to find out optimal paths for source-destination pairs that are internal to the same AS. Let's now consider how paths are determined for source-destination pairs that span multiple ASs. The Border Gateway Protocol version 4, is the de

Tags bgp peers, subnet, routers, bgp session, autonomous system, peering link, stub network
1005
The Link Layer and Local Area Networks
The Link Layer and Local Area Networks

So far we have learned that the network layer provides a communication service between two hosts. As illustrated in Figure 1, this communication path comprises a series of communication links, starting at the source host, passing through a series of routers, and ending at

Tags network layer, routers, link layer, frames, network adapter
2290
Link-Layer Addressing
Link-Layer Addressing

Nodes that is hosts and routers have link-layer addresses. Now you might find this surprising, recalling from "The Network Layer" that nodes have network-layer addresses as well. You might be thinking, why in the world do we need to have addresses at both the network and link

Tags nodes, protocol stack, network layer, routers, hosts, ip address
867
Ethernet
Ethernet

Ethernet has pretty much taken over the wired LAN market. In the 1980s and the early 1990s, Ethernet faced many challenges from other LAN technologies, including token ring, FDDI, and ATM. Some of these other technologies succeeded in capturing a part of the LAN market for

Tags global networking, bus topology, hub, nodes, star topology, routers
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