Network Layer

1081
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)

Remember that the network layer of the Internet has three main components: the IP protocol, discussed in the previous section; the Internet routing protocols (including RIP, OSPF. and BGP), which are covered in Routing in the Internet and ICMP, which is the subject of this section.

Tags network layer, router, host, icmp, source quench message, ip protocol, ip address
802
Routing Algorithms
Routing Algorithms

Up to now in this section, we've mostly looked at the network layer's forwarding function. We studied that when a packet arrives to a router, the router indexes a forwarding table and determines the link interface to which the packet is to be directed. We also studied that routing

Tags forwarding tables, network layer, source router, destination router, routing algorithm
847
The Link Layer and Local Area Networks
The Link Layer and Local Area Networks

So far we have learned that the network layer provides a communication service between two hosts. As illustrated in Figure 1, this communication path comprises a series of communication links, starting at the source host, passing through a series of routers, and ending at

Tags network layer, routers, link layer, frames, network adapter
1993
Link-Layer Addressing
Link-Layer Addressing

Nodes that is hosts and routers have link-layer addresses. Now you might find this surprising, recalling from "The Network Layer" that nodes have network-layer addresses as well. You might be thinking, why in the world do we need to have addresses at both the network and link

Tags nodes, protocol stack, network layer, routers, hosts, ip address
1100
MAC Addresses
MAC Addresses

Because there are both network-layer addresses (for instance, Internet IP addresses) and link-layer addresses (that is, MAC addresses), there is a need to translate between them. For the Internet, this is the job of the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP).

Tags network layer, nodes, router, ip address, datagram
845
Ethernet Frame Structure
Ethernet Frame Structure

We can learn a lot about Ethernet by examining the Ethernet frame, which is illustrated in Figure 1. To give this discussion about Ethernet frames a tangible context, lets consider sending an IP datagram from one host to another host, with both hosts on the same

Tags ethernet frame, ip datagram, host, network layer
889
CSMA/CD: Ethernets Multiple Access Protocol
CSMA/CD: Ethernets Multiple Access Protocol

When the nodes are interconnected with a hub (as opposed to a link-layer switch), as shown in Ethernet Figure 2, the Ethernet LAN is a true broadcast LAN - that is, when an adapter transmits a frame, all of the adapters on the LAN receive the frame. Because Ethernet can employ

Tags nodes, network layer, ethernet frame, adapter buffer, exponential backoff
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