Network Layer

1368
Network Layer / Link Layer
Network Layer / Link Layer

The Internet's network layer is responsible for moving network-layer packets known as datagrams from one host to another. The Internet transport-layer protocol (TCP or UDP) in a source host passes, a transport-layer segment and a destination address to the network layer,

Tags network layer, transport layer, link layer
2067
Physical Layer / The OSI Model
Physical Layer / The OSI Model

As the job of the link layer is to move entire frames from one network element to an adjacent network element, the job of the physical layer is to move the individual bits within the frame from one node to the next. The protocols in this layer are again link dependent and further

Tags network layer, protocol stack, link layer
2870
Messages, Segments, Datagrams, and Frames
Messages, Segments, Datagrams, and Frames

The following figure 1 shows the physical path that data takes down a sending end system's protocol stack, up and down the protocol stacks of an intervening link-layer switch and router, and then up the protocol stack at the receiving end system. As we discuss later in this blog,

Tags protocol stack, network layer, datagram
2274
Transport Layer
Transport Layer

Residing between the application and network layers, the transport layer is the most important part of the layered network architecture. It has the critical role of providing communication services directly to the application processes running on different hosts. The pedagogic

Tags network layer, transport layer, internet protocol, end system, transmission rate, logical communication, segments
5133
Multiplexing and Demultiplexing
Multiplexing and Demultiplexing

In this section we discuss transport-layer multiplexing and demultiplexing, that is, extending the host-to-host delivery service provided by the network layer to a process-to-process delivery service for applications running on the hosts. In order to keep the discussion concrete, we'll

Tags network layer, host, transport layer, socket, application protocol
3217
Connectionless Transport: UDP
Connectionless Transport: UDP

In this section, we'll examine UDP, how it works, and what it does. We encourage you to refer back to Principles of Network Applications, which contains an overview of the UDP service model, and to Socket Programming with UDP, which discusses socket programming using

Tags socket programming, udp, network layer, application process, end system, tcp, segment
2151
Approaches to Congestion Control
Approaches to Congestion Control

In TCP Congestion Control, we'll look at TCP's specific approach to congestion control in great detail. Here, we identify the two broad approaches to congestion control that are taken in practice and discuss particular network architectures and congestion-control protocols

Tags congestion control, network architecture, network layer, network congestion, transmission rate, choke packet
1589
The Network Layer
The Network Layer

We know that the transport layer provides many forms of process-to-process communication by relying on the network layers host-to-host communication service. We also know that the transport layer does so without any knowledge about how the network layer in fact implements

Tags network layer, router, transport layer, segments, datagram, routing algorithms, forwarding table, packet switch
1885
Network Service Models
Network Service Models

Before looking into the network layer, let's take the wider view and examine the different types of service that might be offered by the network layer. When the transport layer at a sending host transmits a packet into the network (that is, passes it down to the network layer at

Tags network layer, transport layer, end systems
3245
What's Inside a Router
What's Inside a Router

Now that we've seen an overview of the functions and services of the network layer, let's turn our attention to the network layer's forwarding function - the actual transfer of packets from a router's incoming links to the appropriate outgoing links. We already took a brief look at a few

Tags network layer, line card, router, switching fabric, forwarding table, line speed
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