Protocol Stack

2141
Protocol Layering
Protocol Layering

We have discussed enough about airlines. Let's now turn our attention to network protocols. To provide structure to the design of network protocols, network designers organize protocols - and the network hardware and software that implement the protocols - in layers. Each

Tags network protocol, packet switches, protocol stack
1971
Physical Layer / The OSI Model
Physical Layer / The OSI Model

As the job of the link layer is to move entire frames from one network element to an adjacent network element, the job of the physical layer is to move the individual bits within the frame from one node to the next. The protocols in this layer are again link dependent and further

Tags network layer, protocol stack, link layer
2712
Messages, Segments, Datagrams, and Frames
Messages, Segments, Datagrams, and Frames

The following figure 1 shows the physical path that data takes down a sending end system's protocol stack, up and down the protocol stacks of an intervening link-layer switch and router, and then up the protocol stack at the receiving end system. As we discuss later in this blog,

Tags protocol stack, network layer, datagram
829
The bad guys can modify or delete messages
The bad guys can modify or delete messages

We finish this brief survey of network attacks by explaining man-in-the-middle attacks. In this class of attacks, the bad guy is inserted into the communication path between two communicating entities. Let's refer to the communicating entities as Alice and Bob, which might be

Tags network attacks, protocol stack, communicating entities
2307
Link-Layer Addressing
Link-Layer Addressing

Nodes that is hosts and routers have link-layer addresses. Now you might find this surprising, recalling from "The Network Layer" that nodes have network-layer addresses as well. You might be thinking, why in the world do we need to have addresses at both the network and link

Tags nodes, protocol stack, network layer, routers, hosts, ip address
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