Fiber Optics

Fiber Optics

An optical fiber is a thin, flexible medium that conducts pulses of light, with each pulse representing a bit. A single optical fiber can support remarkable bit rates, up to tens or even hundreds of gigabits per second. They are resistant to electromagnetic interference, have very low signal reduction up to 100 kilometers, and are very hard to tap, These features have made fiber optics the preferred long-haul guided transmission media, mainly for overseas links. Many of the long-distance telephone networks in the United States and elsewhere now use fiber optics exclusively. Fiber optics is also prevalent in the backbone of the Internet. However, the high cost of optical devices - such as transmitters, receivers, and switches - has hampered their use for short-haul transport, such as in a LAN or into the home in a residential access network. The Optical Carrier (OC) standard link speeds range from 51.8 Mbps to 39.8 Gbps; these specifications are often referred to as OC-n, where the link speed equals n x 51.8 Mbps. Standards in use today include OC-1. OC-3. OC-12, OC-24, OC-48. OC-96, OC-192, OC-768. [IEC Optical 2009; Goralski 2001; Ramaswami 1998; and Mukherjee 1997] provide coverage of various aspects of optical networking.


links, lan, optical networking

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