The Network Layer

877
Multicast
Multicast

We have examined in the previous section that with broadcast service, packets are delivered to each and every node in the network. In this section we'll focus on multicast service, in which a multicast packet is delivered to only a subset of network nodes. A number of emerging

Tags multicast packet, address indirection, multicast group, soft state, pruning, multicast router
1568
Broadcast and Multicast Routing
Broadcast and Multicast Routing

So far in this section, our focus has been on routing protocols that support unicast (i.e., point-to-point) communication, in which a single source node sends a packet to a single destination node. In this section, we focus on broadcast and multicast routing protocols. In broadcast

Tags broadcast routing, multicast routing, broadcast storm, reverse path forwarding, spanning tree, routing protocols
1816
Inter-AS Routing: BGP
Inter-AS Routing: BGP

We just studied how ISPs use RIP and OSPF to find out optimal paths for source-destination pairs that are internal to the same AS. Let's now consider how paths are determined for source-destination pairs that span multiple ASs. The Border Gateway Protocol version 4, is the de

Tags bgp peers, subnet, routers, bgp session, autonomous system, peering link, stub network
775
Intra-AS Routing in the Internet: OSPF
Intra-AS Routing in the Internet: OSPF

Like RIP, OSPF routing is extensively used for intra-AS routing in the Internet. OSPF and its closely related cousin, IS-IS, are normally deployed in upper-tier lSPs whereas RIP is deployed in lower-tier ISPs and enterprise networks. The Open in OSPF indicates that the routing

Tags autonomous system, ospf packet, area border routers, link weights
961
Routing in the Internet
Routing in the Internet

After studying Internet addressing and the IP protocol, we now turn our attention to the Internet's routing protocols; their job is to determine the path taken by a datagram between source and destination. We'll see that the Internet's routing protocols embody many of the principles

Tags internet addressing, routing protocol, interior gateway protocols, rip response message, routing table,
800
Hierarchical Routing
Hierarchical Routing

In our study of LS and DV algorithm, we have looked at the network simply as a collection of interconnected routers. One router was indistinguishable from another in the sense that all routers executed the same routing algorithm to compute routing paths through the entire

Tags routing algorithm, autonomous systems, gateway routers, forwarding table, hot-potato routing
1207
Distance-Vector Algorithm
Distance-Vector Algorithm

When a node running the DV algorithm detects a change in the link cost from itself to a neighbor (Lines 10-11), it updates its distance vector (Lines 13-14) and, if there's a change in the cost of the least-cost path, informs its neighbors (Lines 16-17) of its new distance vector, Figure

Tags distance vector, routing loop, poisoned reverse, ls algorithm, forwarding tables
1204
The Distance-Vector (DV) Routing Algorithm
The Distance-Vector (DV) Routing Algorithm

The LS algorithm is an algorithm using global information, the distance-vector (DV) algorithm is iterative, asynchronous, and distributed. It is distributed in that each node receives some information from one or more of its directly attached neighbors, performs a calculation, and then

Tags ls algorithm, nodes, dijskstra algorithm, asynchronous algorithm, routing tables
1752
The Link-State (LS) Routing Algorithms
The Link-State (LS) Routing Algorithms

Remember that in a link-state algorithm, the network topology and all link costs are known, that is, available as input to the LS algorithm. In fact this is accomplished by having each node broadcast link-state packets to all other nodes in the network, with each link-state packet

Tags nodes, broadcast algorithms, loop, ls algorithm, routers
957
Routing Algorithms
Routing Algorithms

Up to now in this section, we've mostly looked at the network layer's forwarding function. We studied that when a packet arrives to a router, the router indexes a forwarding table and determines the link interface to which the packet is to be directed. We also studied that routing

Tags forwarding tables, network layer, source router, destination router, routing algorithm
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