Application Layer

2491
Overview of How DNS Works
Overview of How DNS Works

We now present a high-level overview of how DNS works. Our discussion will focus on the hostname-to-IP-address translation service. Assume that some application (such as a Web browser or a mail reader) running in a user's host needs to translate a hostname to an IP address. The application will invoke the client side of DNS, specifying the hostname that needs to be translated. (On many UNIX-based

Tags centralized database, iterative queries, distributed database, dns server, recursive queries
2112
DNS Records and Messages
DNS Records and Messages

The DNS servers that collectively implement the DNS distributed database store resource records (RRs), including RRs that provide hostname-to-IP address mappings. Each DNS reply message carries one or more resource records. In this and the following subsection, we

Tags resource records, dns servers, hostname, dns messages, mail server, nslookup program
1495
Inserting Records into the DNS Database
Inserting Records into the DNS Database

The discussion in the last article focused on how records are retrieved from the DNS database. You might be wondering how records get into the database in the first place. Let's see how this is done in the context of a particular example. Assume you have just created an exciting

Tags dns database, registrar, dns server, ip address, ip datagrams
2576
Peer-to-Peer Applications
Peer-to-Peer Applications

The applications explained in this section so far - including the Web, e-mail, and DNS - all employ client-server architectures with significant reliance on always-on infrastructure servers. Recall from Network Application Architectures that with a P2P architecture, there is minimal (or

Tags peers, service provider, download rate, distribution time, internet core
1807
BitTorrent
BitTorrent

BitTorrent is a popular P2P protocol for file distribution [BitTorrent 2009]. In BitTorrent lingo, the collection of all peers participating in the distribution of a specific file is called a torrent. Peers in a torrent download equal-size chunks of the file from

Tags tracker, neighboring peers, chunks, p2p protocol, torrent
1387
Distributed Hash Tables (DHTs)
Distributed Hash Tables (DHTs)

An important element of many P2P applications and other distributed applications is an index (that is, a simple database), supporting search and update operations. When this database is distributed, the peers may carry out content caching and complicated routing of queries among

Tags index, distributed applications, peers, p2p database
8885
Circular DHT
Circular DHT

To deal with this problem of scale. let's now look at organizing the peers into a circle. In this circular arrangement, each peer only keeps track of its immediate successor (modulo 2n). An instance of such a circle is shown in Figure 1(a). In this instance, n is again 4 and there are

Tags peers, successor, identifier, dht, overlay network, routers, circular overlay
1781
Case Study: P2P Internet Telephony with Skype
Case Study: P2P Internet Telephony with Skype

Skype is an immensely popular P2P application, often with seven or eight million users connected to it at any one time. Besides providing PC-to-PC Internet telephony service, Skype offers PC-to-phone telephony service, phone-to-PC telephony service, and PC-to-PC video

Tags nodes, relays, router, peers, packets, p2p application, protocol
1868
Socket Programming with TCP
Socket Programming with TCP

As we have considered many important network applications, let's discover how network application programs are actually written. In this section we'll write application programs that use TCP; in the following section we'll write programs that use UDP.

Tags client program, server program, network application, socket programming, stream, tcp
3705
An Example Client Server Application in Java
An Example Client Server Application in Java

In order to to explain socket programming for both TCP and UDP, we use the following simple client-server application:

Tags socket programming, standard input, standard output, streams, socket
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