Computer Networks and the Internet

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Satellite Radio Channels
Satellite Radio Channels

A communication satellite links two or more Earth-based microwave transmitter/receivers, known as ground stations. The satellite receives transmissions on one frequency band, regenerates the signal using a repeater and transmits the signal on another frequency. Two types of

Tags links, dsl, satellites
2648
The Network Core
The Network Core

Having examined the Internet's edge, let us now look into more deeply inside the network core - the network of packet switches and links that interconnects the internet's end systems. The following figure highlights the network core with thick, shaded lines.

Tags circuit switching, packet switching, transmission rate
1942
Circuit Switching
Circuit Switching

This blog is about computer networks, the Internet, and packet switching not about telephone networks and circuit switching. However, it is important to understand why the Internet and other computer networks use packet switching rather than the more traditional circuit-

Tags packet switching, circuit switching, host
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Multiplexing in Circuit-Switched Networks
Multiplexing in Circuit-Switched Networks

A circuit in a link is implemented with either frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) or time-division multiplexing (TDM). With FDM, the frequency spectrum of a link is divided up among the connections established across the link. Particularly, the link dedicates a frequency

Tags transmission rate, packet switching, circuit switching
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Packet Switching
Packet Switching

Allocated applications exchange messages in completing their task. Messages can contain anything the protocol designer desires. Messages may carry out a control function (far example, the "Hi" messages in our handshaking example) or can include data, such as an e-mail

Tags communication links, packet switches, link-layer switches
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Packet Switching Versus Circuit Switching: Statistical Multiplexing
Packet Switching Versus Circuit Switching: Statistical Multiplexing

Having explained circuit switching and packet switching, let us compare the two. Opponents of packet switching have frequently argued that packet switching is not appropriate for real-time services (for example, telephone calls and video conference calls) because of its

Tags packet switching, circuit switching, transmission rate
1873
How Do Packets Make Their Way Through Packet-Switched Networks
How Do Packets Make Their Way Through Packet-Switched Networks

Earlier we said that a router takes a packet arriving on one of its connected communication links and forwards that packet on to another of its connected communication links. But how does the router decide the link onto which it should forward the packet? This is actually done in

Tags communication links, routing protocols, routers
3939
ISPs and Internet Backbones
ISPs and Internet Backbones

We saw earlier that end systems (user PCs, PDAs, Web servers, mail servers, and so on) connect into the Internet via a local ISP. The ISP can supply either wired or wireless connectivity, using an array access technologies including DSL, cable, FTTH, Wi-Fi, cellular, and WiMAX.

Tags end systems, transmission rate, packets
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Delay, Loss, and Throughput in Packet-Switched Networks
Delay, Loss, and Throughput in Packet-Switched Networks

Back in "What is the Internet", we described that the Internet can be viewed as an infrastructure that gives services to allocated applications running on end systems. Preferably, we would like Internet services to be able to move as much data as we want between any two end

Tags throughput, host, packet switching
4869
Types of Delay: Processing Delay - Queuing Delay
Types of Delay: Processing Delay - Queuing Delay

Let's look at these delays in the context of following figure. As part of its end-to-end route between source and destination, a packet is sent from the upstream node through router A to router B. Our object is to characterize the nodal delay at router A. Note that router A has an

Tags nodal delay, processing delay, queuing delay
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