May 2013 Archive


13900
Comparing Transmission and Propagation Delay
Comparing Transmission and Propagation Delay

Newcomers to the field of computer networking often have difficulty understanding the difference between transmission delay and propagation delay. The difference is slight but important. The transmission delay is the amount of time needed for the router to push out the

Tags computer networking, transmission delay, propagation delay
8485
Queuing Delay and Packet Loss
Queuing Delay and Packet Loss

The most complex and interesting element of nodal delay is the queuing delay, dqueue. In reality, queuing delay is so important and interesting in computer networking that thousands of papers and several books have been written about it [Bertsekas 1991; Daigle 1991; Kleinrock 1975, 1976; Ross 1995].

Tags packet loss, queuing delay, computer networking
4169
End-to-End Delay
End-to-End Delay

So far we have focused on the nodal delay, that is, the delay at a single router. Lets now examine the total delay from source to destination. To get a handle on this notion, suppose there are N-1 routers between the source host and the destination host. Let's also suppose for the moment that the network

Tags nodal delay, transmission rate, transmission delays
3713
Throughput in Computer Networks
Throughput in Computer Networks

As well as delay and packet loss, another critical performance measure in computer networks is end-to-end throughput. To describe throughput, consider transferring a large file from Host A to Host B across a computer network. This transfer might be, for instance, a large

Tags packet loss, throughput, communication links
2296
Protocol Layers and Their Service Models
Protocol Layers and Their Service Models

From our discussion so far, it is obvious that the Internet is very complicated system. We have seen that there are many pieces to the Internet: various applications and protocols, different types of end systems, packet switches, and several types of link-level media. Given

Tags end systems, packet switches, computer networking
2141
Protocol Layering
Protocol Layering

We have discussed enough about airlines. Let's now turn our attention to network protocols. To provide structure to the design of network protocols, network designers organize protocols - and the network hardware and software that implement the protocols - in layers. Each

Tags network protocol, packet switches, protocol stack
1113
Application Layer / Transport Layer
Application Layer / Transport Layer

The application layer is where network applications and their application-layer protocols reside. The internet's application layer contains many protocols, such as the HTTP protocol (which provides for Web document request and transfer), SMTP (which provides for the transfer

Tags application layer, transport layer, network application
1291
Network Layer / Link Layer
Network Layer / Link Layer

The Internet's network layer is responsible for moving network-layer packets known as datagrams from one host to another. The Internet transport-layer protocol (TCP or UDP) in a source host passes, a transport-layer segment and a destination address to the network layer,

Tags network layer, transport layer, link layer
1971
Physical Layer / The OSI Model
Physical Layer / The OSI Model

As the job of the link layer is to move entire frames from one network element to an adjacent network element, the job of the physical layer is to move the individual bits within the frame from one node to the next. The protocols in this layer are again link dependent and further

Tags network layer, protocol stack, link layer
2712
Messages, Segments, Datagrams, and Frames
Messages, Segments, Datagrams, and Frames

The following figure 1 shows the physical path that data takes down a sending end system's protocol stack, up and down the protocol stacks of an intervening link-layer switch and router, and then up the protocol stack at the receiving end system. As we discuss later in this blog,

Tags protocol stack, network layer, datagram
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