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16
Inter-AS Routing: BGP
Inter-AS Routing: BGP

We just studied how ISPs use RIP and OSPF to find out optimal paths for source-destination pairs that are internal to the same AS. Let's now consider how paths are determined for source-destination pairs that span multiple ASs. The Border Gateway Protocol version 4, is the de

Tags bgp peers, subnet, routers, bgp session, autonomous system, peering link, stub network
22
Intra-AS Routing in the Internet: OSPF
Intra-AS Routing in the Internet: OSPF

Like RIP, OSPF routing is extensively used for intra-AS routing in the Internet. OSPF and its closely related cousin, IS-IS, are normally deployed in upper-tier lSPs whereas RIP is deployed in lower-tier ISPs and enterprise networks. The Open in OSPF indicates that the routing

Tags autonomous system, ospf packet, area border routers, link weights
56
Routing in the Internet
Routing in the Internet

After studying Internet addressing and the IP protocol, we now turn our attention to the Internet's routing protocols; their job is to determine the path taken by a datagram between source and destination. We'll see that the Internet's routing protocols embody many of the principles

Tags internet addressing, routing protocol, interior gateway protocols, rip response message, routing table,
45
Hierarchical Routing
Hierarchical Routing

In our study of LS and DV algorithm, we have looked at the network simply as a collection of interconnected routers. One router was indistinguishable from another in the sense that all routers executed the same routing algorithm to compute routing paths through the entire

Tags routing algorithm, autonomous systems, gateway routers, forwarding table, hot-potato routing
76
Distance-Vector Algorithm
Distance-Vector Algorithm

When a node running the DV algorithm detects a change in the link cost from itself to a neighbor (Lines 10-11), it updates its distance vector (Lines 13-14) and, if there's a change in the cost of the least-cost path, informs its neighbors (Lines 16-17) of its new distance vector, Figure

Tags distance vector, routing loop, poisoned reverse, ls algorithm, forwarding tables
132
The Distance-Vector (DV) Routing Algorithm
The Distance-Vector (DV) Routing Algorithm

The LS algorithm is an algorithm using global information, the distance-vector (DV) algorithm is iterative, asynchronous, and distributed. It is distributed in that each node receives some information from one or more of its directly attached neighbors, performs a calculation, and then

Tags ls algorithm, nodes, dijskstra algorithm, asynchronous algorithm, routing tables
156
The Link-State (LS) Routing Algorithms
The Link-State (LS) Routing Algorithms

Remember that in a link-state algorithm, the network topology and all link costs are known, that is, available as input to the LS algorithm. In fact this is accomplished by having each node broadcast link-state packets to all other nodes in the network, with each link-state packet

Tags nodes, broadcast algorithms, loop, ls algorithm, routers
97
Routing Algorithms
Routing Algorithms

Up to now in this section, we've mostly looked at the network layer's forwarding function. We studied that when a packet arrives to a router, the router indexes a forwarding table and determines the link interface to which the packet is to be directed. We also studied that routing

Tags forwarding tables, network layer, source router, destination router, routing algorithm
91
A Brief Foray into IP Security
A Brief Foray into IP Security

"Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)" covered IPv4 in some detail, containing the services it provides and how those services are implemented. While reading through that section, you may have noticed that there was no mention of any security services. In fact, IPv4 was

Tags computer network, virtual private networks, routers, hosts, cryptographic algorithms
116
Transitioning from IPv4 to IPv6
Transitioning from IPv4 to IPv6

As we have seen the technical details of IPv6 let us look at a very practical matter: How will the public Internet, which is based on IPv4, be transitioned to IPv6? The problem is that while new IPv6-capable systems can be made backward-compatible, that is, can send, route, and

Tags tunneling, dual-stack approach, ipv6 nodes, application-layer protocol

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