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Obtaining a Block of Addresses
Obtaining a Block of Addresses

In order to get a block of IP addresses for use within an organization's subnet, a network administrator might first contact its ISP. which would provide addresses from a larger block of addresses that had already been assigned to the ISP. For instance, the ISP may itself have been

Tags subnet, dhcp discover message, dhcp offer message, dhcp request message
42
IPv4 Addressing
IPv4 Addressing

We’ll now concentrate on IPv4 addressing. Though you may be thinking that addressing must be a straightforward topic, hopefully by the end of this section you'll be convinced that Internet addressing is not only a juicy, subtle, and interesting topic but also one that is of central

Tags internet addressing, interface, subnet, cidr, network prefix, classful addressing
59
IP Datagram Fragmentation
IP Datagram Fragmentation

Well study in "The Link Layer and Local Area Networks" that not all link-layer protocols can carry network-layer packets of the same size. Some protocols can carry big datagrams, whereas other protocols can carry only little packets. For instance, Ethernet frames can carry up to

Tags maximum transmission unit, router, forwarding table, fragment, transport layer, ip datagram
174
The Internet Protocol (IP)
The Internet Protocol (IP)

Our discussion of network-layer addressing and forwarding thus far has been without reference to any particular computer network. In this section, we'll turn our attention to how addressing and forwarding are done in the Internet. We'll see that Internet addressing and forwarding

Tags internet addressing, internet forwarding, internet protocol, routing protocols, forwarding tables
79
Output Ports
Output Ports

Output port processing, shown in Switching Fabric Figure 2, takes the packets that have been stored in the output ports memory and transmits them over the outgoing link. The data link protocol processing and line termination are the send-side link- and physical-layer

Tags switch fabric, packet loss, router, traffic load, packet scheduler
96
Switching Fabric
Switching Fabric

The switching fabric is at the very heart of a router. It is through the switching fabric that the packets are in fact switched (that is, forwarded) from an input port to an output port. Switching can be completed in a number of ways, as shown in Figure 1:

Tags switching fabric, router, interconnection network, switch architecture
561
What's Inside a Router
What's Inside a Router

Now that we've seen an overview of the functions and services of the network layer, let's turn our attention to the network layer's forwarding function - the actual transfer of packets from a router's incoming links to the appropriate outgoing links. We already took a brief look at a few

Tags network layer, line card, router, switching fabric, forwarding table, line speed
217
Datagram Networks
Datagram Networks

In a datagram network, each time an end system wants to send a packet, it stamps the packet with the address of the destination end system and then pops the packet into the network. As shown in Figure 1, this is done without any VC setup. Routers in a datagram network

Tags datagram network, end system, routers, forwarding table
276
Virtual Circuit and Datagram Networks
Virtual Circuit and Datagram Networks

Recall from Transport Layer that a transport layer can offer applications connectionless service or connection-oriented service. For instance, the Internets transport layer provides each application a choice between two services: UDP, a connectionless service; or TCP, a connection-

Tags virtual-circuit networks, datagram networks, forwarding table, signaling messages, signaling protocols
194
Network Service Models
Network Service Models

Before looking into the network layer, let's take the wider view and examine the different types of service that might be offered by the network layer. When the transport layer at a sending host transmits a packet into the network (that is, passes it down to the network layer at

Tags network layer, transport layer, end systems

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