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Transitioning from IPv4 to IPv6
Transitioning from IPv4 to IPv6

As we have seen the technical details of IPv6 let us look at a very practical matter: How will the public Internet, which is based on IPv4, be transitioned to IPv6? The problem is that while new IPv6-capable systems can be made backward-compatible, that is, can send, route, and

Tags tunneling, dual-stack approach, ipv6 nodes, application-layer protocol
32
IPv6
IPv6

In the early 1990s, the Internet Engineering Task Force began an effort to develop a successor to the IPv4 protocol. A prime motivation for this effort was the realization that the 32-bit IP address space was beginning to be used up, with new subnets and IP nodes being attached to

Tags ip address, subnet, anycast address, ip nodes
120
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)

Remember that the network layer of the Internet has three main components: the IP protocol, discussed in the previous section; the Internet routing protocols (including RIP, OSPF. and BGP), which are covered in Routing in the Internet and ICMP, which is the subject of this section.

Tags network layer, router, host, icmp, source quench message, ip protocol, ip address
99
Network Address Translation (NAT)
Network Address Translation (NAT)

After studying Internet addresses and the IPv4 datagram format, we're now well aware that every IP-capable device requires an IP address. With the proliferation of small office, home office (SOHO) subnets, this would seem to imply that whenever a SOHO wants to install a LAN to

Tags subnet, address space, router, connection reversal, nat traversal
94
Obtaining a Block of Addresses
Obtaining a Block of Addresses

In order to get a block of IP addresses for use within an organization's subnet, a network administrator might first contact its ISP. which would provide addresses from a larger block of addresses that had already been assigned to the ISP. For instance, the ISP may itself have been

Tags subnet, dhcp discover message, dhcp offer message, dhcp request message
133
IPv4 Addressing
IPv4 Addressing

We’ll now concentrate on IPv4 addressing. Though you may be thinking that addressing must be a straightforward topic, hopefully by the end of this section you'll be convinced that Internet addressing is not only a juicy, subtle, and interesting topic but also one that is of central

Tags internet addressing, interface, subnet, cidr, network prefix, classful addressing
132
IP Datagram Fragmentation
IP Datagram Fragmentation

Well study in "The Link Layer and Local Area Networks" that not all link-layer protocols can carry network-layer packets of the same size. Some protocols can carry big datagrams, whereas other protocols can carry only little packets. For instance, Ethernet frames can carry up to

Tags maximum transmission unit, router, forwarding table, fragment, transport layer, ip datagram
233
The Internet Protocol (IP)
The Internet Protocol (IP)

Our discussion of network-layer addressing and forwarding thus far has been without reference to any particular computer network. In this section, we'll turn our attention to how addressing and forwarding are done in the Internet. We'll see that Internet addressing and forwarding

Tags internet addressing, internet forwarding, internet protocol, routing protocols, forwarding tables
139
Output Ports
Output Ports

Output port processing, shown in Switching Fabric Figure 2, takes the packets that have been stored in the output ports memory and transmits them over the outgoing link. The data link protocol processing and line termination are the send-side link- and physical-layer

Tags switch fabric, packet loss, router, traffic load, packet scheduler
145
Switching Fabric
Switching Fabric

The switching fabric is at the very heart of a router. It is through the switching fabric that the packets are in fact switched (that is, forwarded) from an input port to an output port. Switching can be completed in a number of ways, as shown in Figure 1:

Tags switching fabric, router, interconnection network, switch architecture

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