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CSMA/CD: Ethernets Multiple Access Protocol
CSMA/CD: Ethernets Multiple Access Protocol

When the nodes are interconnected with a hub (as opposed to a link-layer switch), as shown in Ethernet Figure 2, the Ethernet LAN is a true broadcast LAN - that is, when an adapter transmits a frame, all of the adapters on the LAN receive the frame. Because Ethernet can employ

Tags nodes, network layer, ethernet frame, adapter buffer, exponential backoff
20
Ethernet Frame Structure
Ethernet Frame Structure

We can learn a lot about Ethernet by examining the Ethernet frame, which is illustrated in Figure 1. To give this discussion about Ethernet frames a tangible context, lets consider sending an IP datagram from one host to another host, with both hosts on the same

Tags ethernet frame, ip datagram, host, network layer
41
Ethernet
Ethernet

Ethernet has pretty much taken over the wired LAN market. In the 1980s and the early 1990s, Ethernet faced many challenges from other LAN technologies, including token ring, FDDI, and ATM. Some of these other technologies succeeded in capturing a part of the LAN market for

Tags global networking, bus topology, hub, nodes, star topology, routers
60
MAC Addresses
MAC Addresses

Because there are both network-layer addresses (for instance, Internet IP addresses) and link-layer addresses (that is, MAC addresses), there is a need to translate between them. For the Internet, this is the job of the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP).

Tags network layer, nodes, router, ip address, datagram
74
Link-Layer Addressing
Link-Layer Addressing

Nodes that is hosts and routers have link-layer addresses. Now you might find this surprising, recalling from "The Network Layer" that nodes have network-layer addresses as well. You might be thinking, why in the world do we need to have addresses at both the network and link

Tags nodes, protocol stack, network layer, routers, hosts, ip address
285
Taking-Turns Protocols
Taking-Turns Protocols

Remember that two desirable properties of a multiple access protocol are (1) when only one node is active, the active node has a throughput of R bps, and (2) when M nodes are active, then each active node has a throughput of nearly R/M bps. The ALOHA and CSMA protocols have

Tags taking-turns protocols, polling protocol, token-passing protocol, token ring lan, ffdi, lans
288
Random Access Protocols
Random Access Protocols

The second broad class of multiple access protocols are random access protocols. In a random access protocol, a transmitting node always transmits at the full rate of the channel, namely, R bps. When there is a collision, each node involved in the collision repeatedly retransmits its

Tags random access protocol, transmitting node, carrier sensing, collision detection
307
Multiple Access Protocols
Multiple Access Protocols

In the introduction to this section, we noted that there are two types of network links: point-to-point links and broadcast links. A point-to-point link consists of a single sender at one end of the link and a single receiver at the other end of the link. Many link-layer protocols have

Tags broadcast link, cocktail party, multiple access protocols, frame, cdma networks
346
Error-Detection and -Correction Techniques
Error-Detection and -Correction Techniques

In the previous section, we noted that bit-level error detection and correction - detecting and correcting the corruption of bits in a link-layer frame sent from one node to another physically connected neighboring node - are two services often provided by the link layer. We saw in

Tags link layer, parity bit, fec techniques, checksumming techniques, internet checksum, crc codes
258
The Link Layer and Local Area Networks
The Link Layer and Local Area Networks

So far we have learned that the network layer provides a communication service between two hosts. As illustrated in Figure 1, this communication path comprises a series of communication links, starting at the source host, passing through a series of routers, and ending at

Tags network layer, routers, link layer, frames, network adapter

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