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IP Datagram Fragmentation
IP Datagram Fragmentation

Well study in "The Link Layer and Local Area Networks" that not all link-layer protocols can carry network-layer packets of the same size. Some protocols can carry big datagrams, whereas other protocols can carry only little packets. For instance, Ethernet frames can carry up to

Tags maximum transmission unit, router, forwarding table, fragment, transport layer, ip datagram
92
The Internet Protocol (IP)
The Internet Protocol (IP)

Our discussion of network-layer addressing and forwarding thus far has been without reference to any particular computer network. In this section, we'll turn our attention to how addressing and forwarding are done in the Internet. We'll see that Internet addressing and forwarding

Tags internet addressing, internet forwarding, internet protocol, routing protocols, forwarding tables
49
Output Ports
Output Ports

Output port processing, shown in Switching Fabric Figure 2, takes the packets that have been stored in the output ports memory and transmits them over the outgoing link. The data link protocol processing and line termination are the send-side link- and physical-layer

Tags switch fabric, packet loss, router, traffic load, packet scheduler
63
Switching Fabric
Switching Fabric

The switching fabric is at the very heart of a router. It is through the switching fabric that the packets are in fact switched (that is, forwarded) from an input port to an output port. Switching can be completed in a number of ways, as shown in Figure 1:

Tags switching fabric, router, interconnection network, switch architecture
533
What's Inside a Router
What's Inside a Router

Now that we've seen an overview of the functions and services of the network layer, let's turn our attention to the network layer's forwarding function - the actual transfer of packets from a router's incoming links to the appropriate outgoing links. We already took a brief look at a few

Tags network layer, line card, router, switching fabric, forwarding table, line speed
168
Datagram Networks
Datagram Networks

In a datagram network, each time an end system wants to send a packet, it stamps the packet with the address of the destination end system and then pops the packet into the network. As shown in Figure 1, this is done without any VC setup. Routers in a datagram network

Tags datagram network, end system, routers, forwarding table
234
Virtual Circuit and Datagram Networks
Virtual Circuit and Datagram Networks

Recall from Transport Layer that a transport layer can offer applications connectionless service or connection-oriented service. For instance, the Internets transport layer provides each application a choice between two services: UDP, a connectionless service; or TCP, a connection-

Tags virtual-circuit networks, datagram networks, forwarding table, signaling messages, signaling protocols
168
Network Service Models
Network Service Models

Before looking into the network layer, let's take the wider view and examine the different types of service that might be offered by the network layer. When the transport layer at a sending host transmits a packet into the network (that is, passes it down to the network layer at

Tags network layer, transport layer, end systems
177
The Network Layer
The Network Layer

We know that the transport layer provides many forms of process-to-process communication by relying on the network layers host-to-host communication service. We also know that the transport layer does so without any knowledge about how the network layer in fact implements

Tags network layer, router, transport layer, segments, datagram, routing algorithms, forwarding table, packet switch
429
Fairness
Fairness

Look at K TCP connections, each with a different end-to-end path, but all passing through a bottleneck link with transmission rate R bps. (By bottleneck link, we mean that for each connection, all the other links along the connection's path are not congested and have abundant

Tags transmission rate, bottleneck link, tcp connection, congestion window

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