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Datagram Networks
Datagram Networks

In a datagram network, each time an end system wants to send a packet, it stamps the packet with the address of the destination end system and then pops the packet into the network. As shown in Figure 1, this is done without any VC setup. Routers in a datagram network

Tags datagram network, end system, routers, forwarding table
83
Virtual Circuit and Datagram Networks
Virtual Circuit and Datagram Networks

Recall from Transport Layer that a transport layer can offer applications connectionless service or connection-oriented service. For instance, the Internets transport layer provides each application a choice between two services: UDP, a connectionless service; or TCP, a connection-

Tags virtual-circuit networks, datagram networks, forwarding table, signaling messages, signaling protocols
87
Network Service Models
Network Service Models

Before looking into the network layer, let's take the wider view and examine the different types of service that might be offered by the network layer. When the transport layer at a sending host transmits a packet into the network (that is, passes it down to the network layer at

Tags network layer, transport layer, end systems
89
The Network Layer
The Network Layer

We know that the transport layer provides many forms of process-to-process communication by relying on the network layers host-to-host communication service. We also know that the transport layer does so without any knowledge about how the network layer in fact implements

Tags network layer, router, transport layer, segments, datagram, routing algorithms, forwarding table, packet switch
332
Fairness
Fairness

Look at K TCP connections, each with a different end-to-end path, but all passing through a bottleneck link with transmission rate R bps. (By bottleneck link, we mean that for each connection, all the other links along the connection's path are not congested and have abundant

Tags transmission rate, bottleneck link, tcp connection, congestion window
362
TCP Congestion Control
TCP Congestion Control

In this section we return to our study of TCP. As we learned in Connection-Oriented Transport TCP, TCP provides a reliable transport service between two processes running on different hosts. Another key component of TCP is its congestion-control mechanism. As indicated

Tags network congestion, end systems, ip layer, congestion window, self-clocking
280
Network-Assisted Congestion-Control Example: ATM ABR Congestion Control
Network-Assisted Congestion-Control Example: ATM ABR Congestion Control

We close this section with a brief case study of the congestion-control algorithm in ATM ABR - a protocol that takes a network-assisted approach toward congestion control. We emphasize that our objective here is not to describe aspects of the ATM architecture in great detail,

Tags congestion control, packet switching, transmission rate, tcp protocol
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Approaches to Congestion Control
Approaches to Congestion Control

In TCP Congestion Control, we'll look at TCP's specific approach to congestion control in great detail. Here, we identify the two broad approaches to congestion control that are taken in practice and discuss particular network architectures and congestion-control protocols

Tags congestion control, network architecture, network layer, network congestion, transmission rate, choke packet
291
Principles of Congestion Control
Principles of Congestion Control

In the previous sections, we considered both the general principles and specific TCP mechanisms used to provide for a reliable data transfer service in the face of packet loss. We mentioned earlier that, in practice, such loss usually results from the overflowing of router buffers as

Tags network congestion, tcp mechanism, per-connection throughput, router, segments
365
TCP Connection Management
TCP Connection Management

In this section well examine how a TCP connection is established and torn down. Though this topic may not seem particularly exciting, it is important because TCP connection establishment can considerably add to perceived delays (for instance, when surfing the Web). Moreover,

Tags tcp connection, tcp segment, ip datagram, payload, router, synack segment

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